Ludwig Müller (teolog)

Ludwig Müller (født 23. juni 1883 i Gütersloh i Tyskland, død 31. juli 1945 i Berlin) var en tysk, protestantisk teolog. Han var «riksbiskop» (Reichsbischof) i Deutsche Evangelische Kirche, den tyske rikskirken som var direkte styrt av det nasjonalsosialistiske regimet i Tyskland fra 1933 til 1945, og en av de ledende skikkelsene i De tyske kristne (Deutshen Christen), en bevegelse som forsøkte å forene kristendom og nasjonalsosialisme.

Ludwig Müller ble etter høyere skolegang ved Evangelisch Stiftisches Gymnasium Gütersloh og studiet av protestantisk teologi i Halle og Bonn så alumnat]sinspektør ved sin tidligere skole i Gütersloh, og var fra 1905 til 1908 lærervikar i Gütersloh og hjelpepredikant i Marienkirchen-menigheten i Stiftberg, en bydel i westfalske by Herford, og fra juli 1908 i Röhlinghausen.

I 1908 ble han sogneprest i Rödinghausen (Westfalen) og deretter i 1914 marineprest i Wilhelmshaven (hvor han etter krigen sluttet seg til Stahlhelm). Fra 1920 var han marineoverprest der. Fra 1926 til 1933 var han Wehrkreispfarrer (militærprest) i Königsberg. (Det var i Müllers tjenestebolig at Adolf Hitler i 1932 møtte med Werner von Blomberg og hans stabssjef Walter von Reichenau, og der klarte å vinne de to offiserer for nasjonalsosialismen.)

Allerede i 1931 ble Müller medlem av NSDAP. Ludwig Müller var medgrun nlegger og landsleder for Deutsche Christen i Østpreussen, og ble i april 1933 Hitlers rådgiver for kirkesaker.

Den 4. august 1933 avanserte han til Landesbischof for Kirche der Altpreußischen Union, men ble allerede 27. september 1933 valgt til etterføger av Friedrich von Bodelschwingh som Reichsbischof (Riksbiskop), og utnevnt av Hermann Göring til det prøysiske statsråd. Som Reichsbischof fikk han tillagt seg selv stadig flere kompetenser. For eksempel fikk han domimnerende makt i forfatningsutvalget. Også i Kirche der Altpreußischen Union, hvis biskop han fortsatt var, utvidet han rmbedets myndighetsområde og overdro så enkelte av dens kompetanser til Riksbiskopen (også ham selv). Han håpet med dette at også andre Landsbiskoper ville følge dette eksempe og overføre Riksbiskopen mer av sine kompetanser. Også med NS-statens hjelp forsøkte han å vinne mer innflytelse i Landskirkene i egenskap som Riksbiskop. Dette styrket imisdlertid opposisjonsholdningen hos blant annet landsbiskopene Theophil Wurm (Württemberg) og Hans Meiser (Bayern) mot ham. Det tok nesten ett år før han ble innført i ditt embede den 23. september 1934 i Berliner Dom.

Forskjellige hendelser forminsket hans anseelse og innflytelse:

Et forsøk fra opposisjonen for å få en samtale med Hitler som skulle føre til Müllers avsettelse, slo feil. Derette frakjente mange kirkelige personligheter Müller og hans ledelsesgremier (Nationalsynode og geistliches Ministerium) deres legitimitet. Til slutt ble han de facto fratatt sin makt også av NS-stat (ved Reichskirchenministerium under Hanns Kerrl, selv om han formelt forble Reichsbischof. I 1944 fikk han han samsynligvis en dotatio på 500.000 Reichsmark.

Om Müller få måneder etter det nasjonalsosialistiske regimets slutt døde en naturlig død av hjertesykdom, eller tok sitt eget liv, er ikke avklart.

· · · · · · ·

Ризум-Линдхольм

Ризум-Линдхольм (нем. Risum-Lindholm) — коммуна в Германии, в земле Шлезвиг-Гольштейн.

Входит в состав района Северная Фризия. Подчиняется управлению Бёкингхарде. Население составляет 3638 человек (на 31 декабря 2010 года). Занимает площадь 36,03 км². Официальный код — 01 0 54 109.

Официальным языком в населённом пункте, помимо немецкого, является фризский.

Алькерзум | Альмдорф | Аренвьёль | Аренвьёльфельд | Аренсхёфт | Арлеват | Афентофт | Ахтруп | Баргум | Берендорф | Бомштедт | Бонделум | Боргзум | Борделум | Босбюлль | Брадеруп | Брамштедтлунд | Бредштедт | Бреклум | Вельт | Веннингштедт-Брадеруп | Вестер-Орштедт | Вестерланд | Вестерхефер | Вестре | Вик-ауф-Фёр | Виннерт | Витбек | Витдюн | Витзум | Вицворт | Виш | Воббенбюлль | Вриксум | Гальмсбюлль | Гардинг | Гольдебек | Гольделунд | Грёде | Гротузенког | Дагебюлль | Драге | Дрельсдорф | Дунзум | Зет | Зённебюлль | Зильт-Ост | Зимонсберг | Золльвит | Зюдеренде | Зюдерлюгум | Зюдермарш | Зюдерхёфт | Ильфесбюлль | Имменштедт | Йольделунд | Кампен | Карлум | Катариненхерд | Кирхшпиль-Гардинг | Кланксбюлль | Кликсбюлль | Кольденбюттель | Колькерхайде | Котценбюлль | Ладелунд | Лангенес | Лангенхорн | Лек | Лексгард | Лёвенштедт | Лист | Лютенхольм | Мидлум | Мильдштедт | Небель | Ниблум | Нибюлль | Нойкирхен | Нордерфридрихског | Нордорф | Нордстранд | Норштедт | Окхольм | Ольденсворт | Ольдерсбек | Ольдеруп | Ольдзум | Остенфельд | Остер-Орштедт | Остерхефер | Пельворм | Поппенбюлль | Рамштедт | Рантрум | Рантум | Ризум-Линдхольм | Роденес | Ройсенкёге | Санкт-Петер-Ординг | Татинг | Тетенбюлль | Тённинг | Тиннингштедт | Тюмлауэр-Ког | Утерзум | Уфузум | Фиёль | Фоллервик | Фолльштедт | Фрезендельф | Фридрих-Вильгельм-Любке-Ког | Фридрихштадт | Хазелунд | Хатштедт | Хатштедтермарш | Хёгель | Хёрнум | Хоге | Хольм | Хорштедт | Худе | Хузум | Хумптруп | Швабштедт | Швезинг | Шпракебюлль | Штадум | Штедезанд | Штруккум | Элизабет-Софиен-Ког | Эльхёфт | Эммельсбюль-Хорсбюлль | Энге-Занде | Эфенум

Carol Christian

Carol Ann Christian (born 28 December 1950) is an American astronomer and science communicator, who works for the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI; the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope) as a scientist on the institute’s outreach program.

Christian was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and studied astronomy and physics at Boston University, from which she graduated with a PhD in 1979 with a thesis on Investigations of distant field stars and clusters in the galactic anticenter. She then worked as an astronomer for University of California, Berkeley.

In August 1995, Christian was selected as the first head of STScI’s new Office of Public Outreach after a national search. She has continued to act as an outreach scientist for the institute as a media spokesperson, educator and author. From 2003 to 2006, she worked as a scientific policy advisor for the State Department. In 2010, she co-authored A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy with Pierre-Yves Bely and Jean-René Roy.

2001 Genesis Awards Winners

This is a listing of winners from the 2001 Genesis Awards.

Feature Film: „Chicken Run“ (DreamWorks Pictures)

Network Newsmagazine: „Dateline NBC,“ for two powerful, sobering exposes—on puppy mills and on broadtail fur.

Television Dramatic Series: „Family Law“ (CBS), for a story featuring a custody battle for a chimpanzee, exploring the arguments against keeping primates as companion animals.

Television Comedy Series: „Popular“ (The WB), for a script questioning the eating of cows and the wearing of leather.

Television Talk Show: „Politically Incorrect“ (ABC), for arguments against hunting and declaring that the animals‘ right to live supersedes a dying child’s wish to kill.

Cable Documentary: „Investigative Reports“ (A&E), for a look at the perils facing the buffalo of Yellowstone National Park.

Cable Newsmagazine: „CNN & TIME magazine“ (CNN), for exposing greyhound racing.

Cable Documentary Series: „Earth Rescue“ (Outdoor Life Network), for an overview of elephants in circuses, exposing the capture, transport, training methods and lifestyles they endure.

PBS Documentary: „Nature,“ for an unprecedented look at the history of elephants held captive for human curiosity and entertainment.

PBS Series: „ITN World News,“ for exposing some of the worst cases of animal torture around the world.

News Series: KING-TV (Seattle), for a seven-part series revealing the suffering of cows as they are turned into food.

News Feature: KARE-TV (Minneapolis), for revealing the cruelty to horses in the production of Premarin.

Reality Programming: „Wild Rescues“ (Animal Planet), for a series of powerful segments spotlighting animals in peril, and those people whose valiant efforts save them.

Children’s Programming: „Nick News With Linda Ellerbee.“ (Nickelodeon), for introducing information on myriad animal issues, presented in a format easily embraced by children.

Children’s Programming – Animated: „The Wild Thornberrys“ (Nickelodeon), for a sterling season of inspired and clever episodes nurturing a sense of compassion and responsibility.

Cartoonist: „Cathy,“ for challenging the fur industry’s hype with style and wit, and for promoting the adoption of older dogs from shelters.

Periodical: The Atlantic Monthly, for „From the Leash to the Laboratory,“ which unmasks the trade involving the theft of dogs for sale to laboratories.

Ark Trust International Award: Daily Express (United Kingdom), for „Terrible Despair of Animals Cut Up in Name of Research,“ a two-part expose on xenotransplantation.

Brigitte Bardot International Award: (ARTE), for a segment airing in France and Germany that shines the media spotlight on the abuse of U.S. rodeo animals.

Ark Trust International Award to Lucy Johnston and Jonathan Calvert of The Daily Express, United Kingdom, for „Terrible Despair of Animals Cut Up in the Name of Research.“

Referendums in Sweden

Since the introduction of parliamentarism in Sweden, six national referendums have been held. Legal provisions for referendums were introduced in 1922, one year after the adoption of universal suffrage. The Constitution of Sweden provides for binding referendums (concerning changes to the constitution), but all referendums held as of 2012 have been non-binding. The latest referendum, on adopting the euro, was held on 14 September 2003.

The Riksdag decides if a referendum is to be held, when it is held, and the wording of the issue on the ballot. The Riksdag also interprets the results (sometimes the outcome is not clear cut, e.g. the nuclear power referendum of 1980). Ahead of the 1980, 1994 and 2003 referendums, all the parties with seats in the Riksdag promised to follow the outcome of the vote.

Blank votes (to protest against the proceedings or the way the issue is framed etc.) are considered valid in Swedish referendums and are tallied.

Since 1980, there have been legal provisions for binding referendums in questions concerning changes to the constitution and the adoption of international treaties that affect constitutional rights and responsibilities. For a binding referendum to happen, one tenth (i.e. 35) of the members of the Riksdag must demand it the first time the change is up for debate in the Riksdag. One third (i.e. 116) of the members must then support the referendum. The referendum then takes place during the next general election. The change to the constitution is rejected if a majority votes it down, and if the number of votes cast against the change number more than half of the votes cast in the general election. If this is not the case, the referendum becomes non-binding and the Riksdag decides whether to follow the outcome or not. Approval of change to the constitution in a referendum of this kind is never binding. As of 2012, no such referendum has been held.

The first national Swedish referendum, on the prohibition of alcohol, was held on 27 August 1922. The voter turnout was 55.1%, and prohibition was rejected with 51% voting against it. The referendum was held on initiative of the Swedish temperance movements, and although the Riksdag followed the outcome of this non-binding referendum the consumption of alcoholic beverages in Sweden continued to be restricted in other ways (the Bratt System rationing and through the governmental alcohol monopoly Systembolaget among other restrictions). Blank votes were not counted at this time. The outcome was considered an upset victory for those that rejected prohibition as the temperance movements were much more organized and more active in the campaign.

The second national Swedish referendum was held on 16 October 1955. The two alternatives were to either switch to driving on the right or keep left hand driving. Voter turnout was 53.2%, and 82.9% of the votes were in favor of keeping left hand driving. Only 15.5% voted for switching to right hand traffic. 1.6% of the votes were blank votes. The Riksdag later decided to introduce right hand traffic contrary to the outcome. A bill to this effect was passed in 1963 and the switch took place on 3 September 1967 (Dagen H). The referendum was not binding and it was not stipulated on the ballot how long left hand driving should be kept.

The third national Swedish referendum, concerning the form of the Swedish pensions system, was held on 13 October 1957. In this non-binding referendum there were three alternatives:

72.4% of the eligible voters cast their votes, with alternative 1 garnering the most votes (45.8%), alternative 2 got 15.0% of the votes, and alternative 3 got 35.3% of the votes. 3.9% of the votes were blank. Although alternative 1 did not gain over 50% of the votes, the Social Democratic Party saw the result as a mandate, and implemented alternative 1 in the following years. The split of opinion between the two coalition parties of the Erlander II Cabinet on this issue, where the Farmer’s League and the Social Democrats backed different alternatives, led to the dissolution of the coalition and a snap election in 1958. The Farmer’s League and the Social Democrats had different opinions about the outcome: the Social Democrats believed that their alternative had won because it garnered the most votes and the Farmer’s League believed alternative 1 had been rejected because the other two alternatives had garnered over 50% of the vote.

The fourth national Swedish referendum, concerning the form of discontinuing the use of nuclear power, was held on 23 March 1980. In this non-binding referendum there were three alternatives:

There were no alternatives in favor of expanding or retaining the then-current level of use of nuclear power. In spite of this, the Government Chancellery of Sweden writes that alternative 3 was seen as a „no“ to nuclear power and alternatives 1 and 2 were seen as „yes“ to nuclear power. All parties with seats in the Riksdag promised to follow the outcome of the vote.

The impetus for the referendum was the Three Mile Island accident (28 March 1979) that increased public apprehension of nuclear power. 75.7% of eligible voters cast their votes, with alternative 2 garnering the most votes (39.1%), alternative 3 got 38.7% of the votes, and alternative 1 got 18.9% of the votes. Alternative 1 and 2 were largely similar and the main sticking point for the Moderate Party was that alternative 2 included wording that said that any significant power plants in Sweden should be owned by the state or municipalities. The Moderate Party therefore launched their own alternative, without this text on the ballot. 3.9% of the votes were blank.

Though no time frame for discontinuing the use of nuclear power was given on the ballots of alternative 1 and 2, the results (with a majority in favor of alternatives 1 and 2 that stipulated that this should happen as economically feasible) were interpreted by the Riksdag as that the use of nuclear power should be discontinued at the end of the lifespan of the nuclear reactors, with the last two estimated as expiring in 2010. However, not all nuclear power reactors were shut down by 2010, and that same year the Riksdag approved the building of new reactors to replace old ones. Sweden currently has three operational nuclear power plants, with ten operational nuclear reactors, which produce about 35-40% of the country’s electricity. At the time of the referendum, six reactors were operational, with another four completed but not operational, and two under construction.

The fifth national referendum, concerning the membership of Sweden in the European Union (EU), was held on 13 November 1994. Voter turnout was 83.3%, and the result was 52.3% in favor of membership and 46.8% against. 0.9% were blank votes. Although non-binding, all parties with seats in the Riksdag promised ahead of time to follow the outcome of the vote. Sweden joined the EU on 1 January 1995 (the government had applied for membership in 1991).

Of the parties with seats in the Riksdag, the Left Party and the Green Party were against membership. The Moderate Party and the Liberal People’s Party were largely in favor of membership. Although it was a Social Democratic government that initially applied for membership, the Social Democratic Party was split internally on this question and ultimately took no official position, leaving Social Democratic party members to campaign for or against as they saw fit. The Centre Party and the Christian Democrats similarly left the position on the issue up to the members. Two social movements that were not aligned with any party were active during the referendum campaign: Folkrörelsen Nej till EU („The Social Movement No to the EU“) and Ja till Europa („Yes to Europe“) against and for membership, respectively.

The sixth national referendum, concerning the adoption of the euro currency, was held on 14 September 2003. The voter turnout was 82.6%, and the adoption of the euro was rejected with 55.9% of the votes, with 42.0% voting in favor. There were 2.1% blank votes. Although non-binding, all parties with seats in the Riksdag promised ahead of time to follow the outcome of the vote. As of 2015, Sweden has not adopted the euro, and public opinion against adoption has grown over time.

The Moderate Party, the Liberal People’s Party and the Christian Democrats were in favor of adopting the euro. The Social Democratic Party was split and one part of the party campaigned for and another against. The Left Party, the Green Party and the Centre Party were against adoption. Sweden in Europe was the umbrella organization for those in favor of adoption. sv:Folkrörelsen Nej till EU („The Social Movement No to the EU“), active since before the 1994 referendum on membership in the European Union, was also active against the euro during this referendum.

The murder of Anna Lindh, Social Democratic Minister of Foreign Relations, on 11 September 2003 led to the suspension of the referendum campaign. After deliberations, the government and the other parties with seats in the Riksdag decided to go ahead with the referendum at the set date, but no further debates or campaigning would take place. The motive behind the murder was not known before the end of the referendum (no one claimed responsibility), but at the time it was assumed that it had been perpetrated to influence the outcome. The perpetrator was apprehended on 16 September, after the vote, and it turned out that the deed had nothing to do with the referendum. According to Statistics Sweden, the official government statistics agency of Sweden, the murder had no effect on the outcome of the referendum. The popularity of Lindh (who had campaigned in favor of adoption) increased after the murder, but this was not reflected in the outcome of the vote to any significant degree.

Referendums can be held in a municipality about a local political issue. Such referendums are common, and often held in connection with a general election. The municipalities in Sweden have comparatively little power, and can’t change laws. Local referendums requesting a law change are sometimes held anyway, as political statements to the central government. The most well known Swedish municipal referendum is the 1988 Sjöbo referendum where the voters passed a motion to stop refugees from seeking asylum in the municipality.

Paragould, Arkansas

Paragould is the county seat of Greene County, and the 19th-largest city in Arkansas. The city is located in northeastern Arkansas atop Crowley’s Ridge, a geologic anomaly contained within the Arkansas delta. The city’s name is a blend combining the last names of competing railroad magnates J. W. Paramore and Jay Gould. Paramore’s Texas & Saint Louis Railway (later the Cotton Belt) and Gould’s St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway (later the Missouri Pacific) intersected here in 1882. A group of citizens chose the name, and it is believed to be the only city in the world with this name. Gould objected to his name’s being second and refused to list the new town on his schedules. The city had a population of 26,113 at the 2010 census.

Paragould is the principal city of the Paragould, Arkansas Micropolitan Statistical Area and is also a part of the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area. The Paragould micropolitan area’s population is approximately 42,090 and the Jonesboro-Paragould Combined Statistical Area’s population is estimated at 138,533.

Paragould is located at (36.057075, -90.502938).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.0 square miles (80 km2), of which 30.8 square miles (80 km2) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) (0.52%) is water.

Paragould is located in northeast Arkansas, approximately 88 miles northwest of Memphis, Tennessee. The community is located at the intersection of U.S. Routes 412 and 49.

List Of Highways:

As of the census of 2000, there were 22,017 people, 8,941 households, and 6,133 families residing in the city. The population density was 714.6 people per square mile (275.9/km²). There were 9,789 housing units at an average density of 317.7 per square mile (122.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.87% White, 0.04% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 1.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,941 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.4% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,815, and the median income for a family was $39,431. Males had a median income of $28,103 versus $20,623 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,076. About 8.4% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.

Paragould has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Paragould is home to Arkansas State University Paragould, Arkansas Northeastern College, Black River Technical College, and Crowley’s Ridge College. Paragould has two public school districts, the Greene County Tech School District and the Paragould School District, as well as Crowley’s Ridge Academy and St. Mary’s Catholic School private school systems.[citation needed]

Arkansas Methodist Medical Center is Paragould’s only hospital. The 127-bed acute-care hospital’s campus includes a professional office building with community wellness center and a building with campus offices for Arkansas Northeastern College’s nursing programs.[citation needed]

On December 15, 2012, it was announced that „beginning in 2013, the department would deploy a new street crimes unit to high crime areas on foot to take back the streets.“ The remaining town hall meetings to inform the public of the new plan were cancelled due to the volume of threats received as a result of national media exposure. This was done in regards to public safety, as continuing to hold the meetings could have posed a danger to attending citizens. It is unknown at this time if the plan will still be put into effect.

Lonely at the Top: The Best of Randy Newman

Allmusic 4/5 stars

Albums de Randy Newman

Lonely at the Top: The Best of Randy Newman (1987) est une compilation de chansons de l’auteur-compositeur-interprète américain de rock Randy Newman.

L’album donne une sélection de chansons de la première partie de sa carrière. Il donne libre court à son esprit caustique, comme dans God’s Song:

Toutes les compositions sont de Randy Newman.

Clackline–Miling railway

The Clackline to Miling railway branch, originally known as the Clackline to Newcastle railway line, is a railway line in Western Australia.

As it was progressively developed various sections were named differently. Each section of the line needed separate lobbying and discussion in the Western Australian Parliament to get enabling acts. The final section was approved in 1920 and completed in 1925.

After completion it became known as the Miling branch, following final expansion north to Miling, and the closing of the Clackline to Newcastle (Toodyay) section.

The railway line to connect Newcastle to the eastern railway was considered to be best started from Clackline, rather than Northam. The original terminus of the line in the 1890s was a platform, it was later that the second stopping place properly known as Toodyay railway station was completed after the extension to Newcastle-Bolgart Railway was completed.

Following the construction of the standard gauge railway through the Avon valley in the 1960s, the connection with Clackline was no longer needed, and was closed with other former eastern railway connections in February 1966.

It is now a heritage trail.

In the 1960s the railway line from Toodyay to Miling was altered by the construction of the Eastern Railway through the Avon Valley, through Toodyay and a connection with Northam.

The fate of the railway has been put in question due to the separation of wheatbelt railway lines being designated into specific tiers.

The railway line was developed over time, the construction taking fifteen years to travel over 100 km.

Names used as found in WAGR Annual reports in the 1950s

Sozialsystem

Das Sozialsystem einer Volkswirtschaft fasst die über Steuern und Sozialabgaben finanzierten Absicherungen für die Bevölkerung zusammen. Zum Sozialsystem zählt zum Beispiel das Teilsystem der Sozialversicherung.

Die meisten Teile der heutigen Sozialsysteme in Europa wurden gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts eingeführt.
Während Ludwig Erhard noch vermutete, ein Sozialsystem würde mit steigendem Wohlstand einer Gesellschaft mehr und mehr überflüssig werden, zeigte sich – bspw. in Deutschland mit dem Wirtschaftswunder –, dass mit sinkender Not der Bedarf nach einem umfassenden Sozialsystem sogar steigt; Sicherheit erwies sich als sogenanntes superiores Gut.

Da zur Aufrechterhaltung eines Sozialsystems Steuern nötig sind, die nach neoklassischer Theorie zu Nettowohlfahrtsverlusten führen, konkurriert ein Sozialsystem mit dem Wohlstand der Allgemeinheit. Mit einem ausgeprägten Sozialsystem lässt sich somit keine Vollbeschäftigung erreichen. Dennoch scheint ein Sozialsystem nötig, um Kranken, Alten oder Arbeitsunfähigen ein Auskommen zu ermöglichen.

Inzwischen versucht man durch eine Beschränkung des Sozialsystems eine Rückkehr zur ursprünglichen Idee zu erreichen und somit einer „Empfängermentalität“ entgegenzuwirken. Dies zeigte sich bereits in den 1980ern durch einen Umbau des Sozialsystems in Großbritannien, später in Schweden und in Ansätzen auch in Deutschland (Hartz IV).

Abgesehen von Fragen der Verteilungsgerechtigkeit spielt der Sozialstaat aus keynesianischer Sicht vor allem in dreierlei Hinsicht eine wichtige Rolle. Erstens als permanente Stütze der privaten Konsumnachfrage, zweitens als Stabilisator in Krisenzeiten und drittens zur Eindämmung von Unsicherheit. Aus keynesianischer Sicht lässt sich empirisch kein statistisch signifikanter negativer Zusammenhang zwischen dem Ausbau des Sozialstaates und Wachstum bzw. Beschäftigung herleiten.

Während sich die Staatsquote (Anteil der Staatsausgaben am BIP) in Deutschland im Jahr 2003 auf 48 % belief, wies Schweden eine Staatsquote von 59 %, Frankreich von 54 % auf. Interessant ist, dass das Wirtschaftswachstum in Schweden zwischen 1999 und 2004 jährlich im Schnitt 1,6-%-Punkte über dem deutschen Wachstum lag. Das französische Wachstum lag ein Prozentpunkt über dem Deutschen. Überdies besteht in den OECD-Staaten eine eindeutig positive Korrelation zwischen der Höhe des BIP und dem Ausbau des Sozialstaates.

USS Papago (ATF-160)

USS Papago (ATF-160) was an Abnaki-class fleet ocean tug built for the United States Navy during World War II, and named for the American Indian tribe of the Piman family that formerly lived south and southeast of the Gila River in Arizona and the Mexican state of Sonora.

Papago was laid down at Charleston, South Carolina by the Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Company on 19 March 1945. She was launched on 21 June 1945, with Mrs. William Thomas Johnston as her sponsor. Papago was commissioned into the United States Navy on 3 October 1945, with Lt. W. S. Hall in command.

Following shakedown, Papago reported to the Naval Operating Base in Newport, Rhode Island on 17 November 1945 and conducted training operations and movements to assist various vessels in distress for the remainder of that year.

After duty as a stand-by tug in Bermuda, Papago towed YD–171, the world’s largest self-propelled Floating crane at the time, from Bremerhaven, Germany to Cristóbal, Colón, in the Panama Canal Zone, from 14 August to 20 September 1946.

Papago engaged in general towing, upkeep, and material maintenance for several months after which she made towing voyages in 1949 from the Panama Canal Zone to Naval Station Norfolk; from Norfolk to Newport; and from Boston to Bayonne, New Jersey.

From 30 January to 7 February 1950, Papago was involved in re-floating the battleship USS Missouri (BB-63), which had run aground in Hampton Roads on 17 January. She then moved decommissioned destroyer escorts to Philadelphia for the transfer to France under the Military Defense Assistance Program between 10 May to 14 May 1950.

Papago later towed the decommissioned heavy cruiser USS Des Moines (CA-134) from Boston to Philadelphia between 17 July to 21 July 1961. Papago was subsequently engaged in the salvaging and re-floating operation involving the decommissioned destroyer USS Monssen (DD-798), which had grounded at Beach Haven, New Jersey, while being towed by another vessel during a severe storm on 6 March 1962 between 6 March to 22 April. For this effort, Papago received a citation from Admiral Robert L. Dennison, the Commander-in-Chef U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT).

The first half of 1968 was marked by four and a half months of almost continuous steaming in coastal and Caribbean waters involving the pioneering of nuclear submarine towing methods, followed in the fall by participation in communications experiments in the Virginia Capes area. Papago received the Award of Excellence in Engineering for fiscal year 1968.

On 10 November, Papago towed the newly decommissioned destroyer USS Barry (DD-933) to the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, reaching that facility on the 12 March.

Papago did not participate in the Korean War, while she did perform towing operations in coastal waters and the Caribbean. Papago did participate in refresher training and towed gunnery targets in the Guantanamo Bay area from 11 March to 16 July 1957. She participated in NATO’s Operation Strikeback, deploying to Scotland from 14 September to 28 September 1957. Papago also participated in NASA’s manned space flight program as a naval support vessel for the following missions:

Papago participated in quarantine operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis from 10 October to 14 November 1962. In early 1963, she provided services for Operation Springboard in the Caribbean Sea and spent much of the remainder of 1963 and 1964 in the Guantanamo Bay and Virginia Capes areas. Papago later joined Commander Task Group 124.3 (CTG 124.3) in May 1965 for duty during the crisis in the Dominican Republic, then steamed in the North Atlantic as part of Commander Service Division 81 (ComServDiv 81).

While serving as a rescue, salvage, and towing ship for the U.S. Sixth Fleet in 1967, Papago provided escort and communication support to the stricken USS Liberty (AGTR-5) which had been attacked by Israeli forces during the Six-Day War. Papago ended 1968 undergoing an extensive overhaul at Newport News.

Starting 28 June 1985, Papago participated in anti-drug patrols in the Caribbean Sea as part of Joint Task Force 4 (JTF-4).

Papago received the following awards and citations during her commission as a unit of the United States Navy:

Papago was decommissioned on 28 July 1992 and was struck from the Naval Registry on 14 February 1995. Ex-Papago was transferred to the Maritime Administration on 29 December 1997 for disposal, and is now[when?] a part of the Naval mothball fleet located in Philadelphia, PA.