George Edward Post

George Edward Post, né le 17 décembre 1838 à New York et mort le 1er avril 1909 en Syrie (actuel Liban), dans l’Empire ottoman, est un médecin et botaniste américain qui s’intéressa à la flore du Moyen-Orient.

Il écrivit la première version de la flore du Moyen-Orient, en 1896, pendant qu’il était professeur de chirurgie et missionnaire presbytérien au collège protestant de Syrie, situé à Beyrouth (actuel Liban). C’est aujourd’hui l’université américaine de Beyrouth. Ses collections personnelles, ainsi que celles obtenues par échange, font partie maintenant de l’herbier de l’UAB de Beyrouth.

Le Dr Post fut un écrivain prolifique dans le domaine de l’histoire naturelle, de la médecine et de la théologie. Il décrivit 221 taxons dans Plantæ Postianæ, série de publications qui parurent à partir de numéro V dans le Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier, sauf une dans le journal de la Société linnéenne de Londres (Linnean Society Journal).

Post est l’abréviation botanique standard de George Edward Post.

Consulter la liste des abréviations d’auteur ou par l’IPNI

The Forest (play)

The Forest (Russian: Лес, Romanized as Les) is a play by Alexander Ostrovsky written in 1870 and first published in the January 1871 issue of Otechestvennye Zapiski magazine. It was premiered in Saint Petersburg’s Alexandrinsky Theatre on November 1, 1871, as a benefit for actor Fyodor Burdin. In Moscow’s Maly Theatre it was performed on November 26, 1871.

Ostrovsky started writing The Forest in the last days of summer 1870 in his Shchelykovo estate. „The end of it is near but I don’t think it would be worthwhile to try and have it staged this season,“ he informed his friend Fyodor Burdin in a letter on November 4. Initially The Forest was conceived as a family comedy but gradually the satirical line in it strengthened with Nestchastlivtsev, originally a marginal character, becoming the main hero.

Like many previous Ostrovsky’s plays, this one has been tried out at informal recitals in friends‘ literary parties. The first of such readings took place in Mikhail Ostrovsky’s home. Inspired by it success and following his brother’s advice, soon after its publication Ostrovsky nominated the play for the prestigious Uvarov Prize but hasn’t got it. The jury’s decision has been criticized by Pavel Annenkov who wrote: „Alexander Nikolayevich has been refused the Prize. Such was the decision of those walking suit-cases stuffed with quasi-scientific nonsense who sit in the [Academy’s] Department of the Russian literature, having… not a drop of taste or poetical feeling; not a trace of understanding what mastery is in literature,“ he wrote to Mikhail Ostrovsky.

On May 14, 1871 the play got the approval of the Theatre and Literature committee. It was premiered in Saint Petersburg’s Alexandrinsky Theatre as a benefit for Fyodor Burdin who played Neschastlivtsev. It also featured Maria Tchitau (as Gurmyzhskaya), Yelena Struyskaya (Aksyusha) and Platon Pronsky (Milonov). Ostrovsky was not in a position to control the process personally, tried to do it by means of letters addressed to Burdin. After the premiere the latter informed the author that the „play has been received very warmly“ but that his personal absence „did a lot of harm to the quality of the production.“ In reality things were quite different. The play flopped dismally, due, first and foremost to the inadequacy of Burdin who, according to one reviewer, „had not a modicum of a tragic actor in him.“ Tchitau’s performance (as Gurmyzhskaya) was found wanting too, in fact, only two actors, Zubrov (as Schastlivtsev) and Vasilyev the 2nd (Vosmibratov) have been mentioned by reviewers in the positive light.

In Moscow The Forest was performed on November 26, 1871, as a benefit for Sofia Akimova (who played Ulita). It also featured Nadezhda Medvedeva (Gurmyzhskaya), Glikeria Fedotova (Aksyusha), Ivan Samarin (Milonov), Vasily Zhivokini (Bodayev), Prov Sadovsky (Vosmibratov, Neschastlivstev), Sergey Shumsky (Schastivtsev).

Critics of the conservative camp reviewed the play negatively. Viktor Burenin saw The Forest as having no relevance whatsoever, arguing that the play was lacking serious content and was built upon the accidental sets of events and characters. Nikolai Strakhov, a Slavophile critic, had similar reservations, seeing the play as having no social significance and criticizing it’s humour as „Shchedrinian“ and a „low-brow“ type.

The play, on the other hand, was greeted warmly by the democratic press. It was praised by Nikolai Nekrasov (who called it ‚brilliant‘) and Ivan Turgenev: in a personal letter the latter told Ostrovsky that he thought the character of ‚a tragic‘ [actor Neschastlivtsev] to be one of his very best. Several years later Aleksey Pleshcheev, reviewing the Moscow Artist Club’s production of The Forest expressed indignation at the fact that such masterpiece has been ignored by the ‚official‘ Russian theatre. Positively ecstatic about the play was the actor Prov Sadovsky who made a personal request for his son Mikhail to feature in the role of the gymnasium student Bulanov which he did at the Moscow premier on November 26, 1871.


Hlöðskviða or The Battle of the Goths and Huns is sometimes counted among the Eddic Poems. It has been preserved as separate stanzas interspersed among the text in Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks (chapters 13 and 14, the stanzas are numbered 1 to 32, after their arrangement within the prose). It is generally agreed that it was originally a poetic whole. The length of the preserved text amounts to 233 lines, constituting a fragment of a longer poem.

Heiðrekr, king of the Goths, had two sons, Angantýr and Hlöðr. Only Angantýr was legitimate, so he inherited his father’s kingdom. Hlöðr, whose mother was the daughter of Humli, king of the Huns, and who was born and raised among the Huns, claimed half the inheritance, Angantýr refused to split evenly and war ensued, claiming first Hervör, their sister, then Hlöðr himself as casualties.

Stanza 1 lists peoples and their rulers:

Ár kváðu Humla
Húnum ráða,
Gizur Gautum,
Gotum Angantý,
Valdarr Dönum,
en Völum Kíarr,
Alrekr inn frækni
enskri þjóðu.

Of old, goes the tale, did Humli
rule the Huns
Gizur the Geats
Angantyr the Goths
Valdar the Danes
Caesar the Walha (Romans)
and brave Alrek (possibly Alfred the Great)
the English nation

Valdar is named as a king of the Danes in Guðrúnarkviða II; Saxo Grammaticus has Humblus son of Danus, first king of the Danes, but Humli here is mostly identified with Attila.

After Heidrek’s death, Hlod travels to Arheimar to claim half of the Gothic realm as his inheritance. In Hlod’s demand (stanza 10) the forest on the boundary separating the Goths and the Huns, and a „holy grave“ is referred to, apparently an important sanctuary of the Goths, but its background is unknown.

Hrís þat it mæra,
er Myrkvið heita,
gröf þá ina helgu,
er stendr á Goðþjóðu,
stein þann inn fagra,
er stendr á stöðum Danpar,
halfar herborgir,
þær er Heiðrekr átti,
lönd ok lýða
ok ljósa bauga.

the famous forest
called Mirkwood
there the holy grave
on the Gothic highway
that famous rock
on the banks of the Dniepr
half of the war-gear
that was Heidrek’s
land and people
and bright rings.

Angatyr offers Hlod a third of his realm, and Gizur, the old foster-father of Heidrek’s says that this is more than enough for the son of a slave. On Hlod’s return to the Hunnic realm, his grandfather Humli is enraged at the insult and gathers the army of the Huns.

The poem ends with Angantýr finding his brother dead (stanza 32):

Bölvat es okkr, bróðir,
bani em ek þinn orðinn;
þat mun æ uppi;
illr er dómr norna.

We are cursed, brother,
I am become your slayer
it is yet again true
cruel is the decree of the Norns (Fates).

Saratoga (fish)

The saratoga, Scleropages leichardti, also known as the spotted bonytongue, spotted saratoga, or southern saratoga, is a freshwater bony fish native to Australia. It belongs to the subfamily Osteoglossinae, or arowanas, a primitive group of teleosts. Like all arowanas, it is a carnivorous mouthbrooder.

Along with the gulf saratoga (S. jardinii), the saratoga is also known as the Australian arowana (mainly by non-Australian aquarists) and barramundi, although the latter name is nowadays reserved in Australia for the unrelated Lates calcarifer.

This species is found in turbid waters and has a more restricted distribution than the other Scleropages native to Australia, Scleropages jardinii.

Like all Scleropages, S. leichardti is a long-bodied fish with large scales, large pectoral fins, and small paired barbels on its lower jaw. Each scale on its dark colored body has a red or pink spot; this feature distinguishes it from S. jardinii, which has several reddish spots on each scale in a crescent shape. S. leichardti is a slimmer fish than other Scleropages; a 90 cm (35 in.) fish was weighed at only 4 kg (8.8 lbs.), compared to 17.2 kg (38 lb.) for a S. jardinii of similar length. The depth of its body is 23-25% of its Standard Length, and it has fewer fin rays than S. jardinii. It is a popular aquarium fish, although it will eat other fish, shrimp, yabbies etc., that are in the tank.

This species is not currently listed on any CITES appendix. . Its IUCN Red List status is Lower Risk/near threatened (LT/nt) . Although it does not occur naturally in Indonesia, it is a protected species in that country.

It has been stocked in number of dams in Queensland, Australia

Rodriguezia obtusifolia

Rodriguezia obtusifolia (Lindl.) Rchb.f., 1852

Rodriguezia obtusifolia  (лат.) — вид однодольных растений рода Родригезия (Rodriguezia) семейства Орхидные (Orchidaceae). Под текущим таксономическим именем растение описано в 1852 году немецким ботаником Генрихом Густавом Райхенбахом.

Эндемик Бразилии, распространённый в штатах Эспириту-Санту, Рио-де-Жанейро и Сан-Паулу.

Небольшое эпифитное растение с длинным стеблем. Псевдобульба гладкая. Цветёт весной. Соцветие кистевидное, несёт несколько цветков размером до 5 см.

Синонимичное название (базионим) — Burlingtonia obtusifolia Lindl., 1840.

Bunter Espen-Frühlingsspanner

Epirranthis diversata, Weibchen

Der Bunte Espenlaub-Frühlingsspanner (Epirranthis diversata) ist in Mitteleuropa die einzige Art aus der Unterfamilie Desmobathrinae. Die Desmobathrinae sind insgesamt eine kleine Unterfamilie der Spanner (Geometridae).

Die Falter fliegen von Anfang März bis Anfang Mai am Tag und in der Nacht. Sie wurden saugend an Weidenkätzchen beobachtet. Das Ei ist weißlich bis leicht rötlich. Es besitzt um die Öffnung an der Spitze (Mikropyle) eine gefelderte Zone. Kurz vor dem Schlüpfen der Eiraupe färbt es sich intensiver rot. Die Raupe ist graubraun mit dunkler, hell gefasster Rückenlinie. Die jungen Raupen leben zwischen eingesponnenen Blättern. Ältere Raupen sollen sich am Boden verstecken. Die überwinternde Puppe ist klein, schlank und hellbraun.

Die Raupen der Art scheinen auf niedrige, junge Espen (Populus tremula) spezialisiert zu sein. In Gefangenschaft wurden aber auch Blätter von Pyramidenpappel und Schwarz-Pappel angenommen.

Die Art kommt in lichten Laubwäldern, Alleen, Parks, Gärten und Auenwälder vor, dort wo es die Futterpflanzen der Raupen gibt. Sie ist verhältnismäßig selten und in Deutschland streng geschützt. Die Art ist in der Roten Liste Deutschlands in die Kategorie 1 (vom Aussterben bedroht) eingeordnet.

In Mitteleuropa kommt nur eine Art und Gattung vor, die zu der Unterfamilie Desmobathrinae zu rechnen ist. Von vielen Autoren wird die Gattung noch in der Unterfamilie Oenochrominae geführt, zu der von manchen Autoren auch die Gattung Alsophila mit ihren zwei Arten gerechnet wurde. Diese Gattung wird heute aber meist als eigene Unterfamilie angesehen.

USS Glendale (PF-36)

USS Glendale (PF-36), a Tacoma-class patrol frigate, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Glendale, California. In commission in the U.S. Navy from 1943 to 1945 and from 1950 to 1951, she also served in the Soviet Navy as EK-6 from 1945 to 1949 and in the Royal Thai Navy as Tachin (PF-1) from 1951 to 2000.

Originally classified as a patrol gunboat, PG-144, Glendale was reclassified as a patrol frigate, PF-36, on 15 April 1943. She was launched on 28 May 1943 at the Consolidated Steel Corporation shipyard in Los Angeles, California, sponsored by Miss Shirley Schlichtman and commissioned on 1 October 1943 with Lieutenant Commander Harold J. Doebler, USCG, in command.

Following shakedown off Southern California, Glendale departed San Diego, California, on 12 January 1944 and reached Cairns, Australia, on 17 February 1944. Until late 1944, she served as an anti-submarine and anti-aircraft escort ship based in New Guinea, protecting arriving and departing merchant ships.

In September 1944, Glendale took part in the assault on Morotai Island, departing Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, on 14 September 1944 to escort merchant ships to the island. She returned to Humboldt Bay on 24 September 1944 to continue escort assignments between New Guinea and the Philippine Islands.

On 5 December 1944, Glendale was escorting a convoy from Hollandia to Leyte in the Philippines when attacking Japanese aircraft sank SS Antoine Saugrain, a cargo ship laden with valuable radar materiel, and severely damaged the merchant ship SS Marcus Daly. Glendale brought the rest of the convoy safely into Leyte the next day.

Glendale departed Leyte on 8 December 1944 bound for the Atlantic Ocean and moored at Boston, Massachusetts, on 24 January 1945.

After overhaul, Glendale got underway from Casco Bay, Maine, on 28 March 1945 as part of Escort Division 25 – which also included her sister ships Long Beach (the flagship), Belfast, San Pedro, Coronado, and Ogden – bound for Seattle, Washington, via the Panama Canal. The six patrol frigates arrived at Seattle on 26 April 1945. They got underway again for Kodiak in the Territory of Alaska on 7 June 1945. Ogden had to return to Seattle for repairs, but Belfast and the other four frigates arrived at Womens Bay, Kodiak, on 11 June 1945.

On 13 June 1945, Glendale, Long Beach, Belfast, San Pedro, Coronado, and their sister ships Charlottesville, Allentown, Machias, and Sandusky got underway from Kodiak for Cold Bay, Alaska, where they arrived on 14 June 1945 to participate in Project Hula, a secret program for the transfer of U.S. Navy ships to the Soviet Navy in anticipation of the Soviet Union joining the war against Japan. Training of Glendales new Soviet Navy crew soon began at Cold Bay.

Glendale was decommissioned on 12 July 1945 at Cold Bay and transferred to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease immediately along with nine of her sister ships, the first group of patrol frigates transferred to the Soviet Navy; when her commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander Ambrose Simko, handed Glendale over to the Soviet Navy, he as well as the commanding officers of the other nine transferred patrol frigates received custom daggers made for each of them as gifts from the Soviets. Commissioned into the Soviet Navy immediately, Glendale was designated as a storozhevoi korabl („escort ship“) and renamed EK-6 in Soviet service. On 15 July 1945, EK-6 departed Cold Bay in company with nine of her sister ships – EK-1 (ex-Charlottesville), EK-2 (ex-Long Beach), EK-3 (ex-Belfast), EK-4 (ex-Machias), EK-5 (ex-San Pedro), EK-7 (ex-Sandusky), EK-8 (ex-Coronado), EK-9 (ex-Allentown), and EK-10 (ex-Ogden) – bound for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Soviet Union. EK-6 served as a patrol vessel in the Soviet Far East.

In February 1946, the United States began negotiations with the Soviet Union for the return of ships loaned to the Soviet Navy for use during World War II. On 8 May 1947, United States Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal informed the United States Department of State that the United States Department of the Navy wanted 480 of the 585 combatant ships it had transferred to the Soviet Union for World War II use returned, EK-6 among them. Negotiations for the return of the ships was protracted, but on 16 November 1949 the Soviet Union finally returned EK-6 to the U.S. Navy at Yokosuka, Japan.

Reverting to her old name. Glendale was recommissioned into the U.S. Navy on 11 October 1950 for service in the Korean War. In December 1950, the ship patrolled off Hungnam, Pusan, and Inchon, Korea, in support of United Nations forces fighting ashore. On 29 October 1951, she was decommissioned again and transferred along with her sister ship USS Gallup (PF-47) to the Government of Thailand. The U.S. Navy struck Glendale from the Navy List on 20 November 1951.

The ship served in the Royal Thai Navy as HTMS Tachin (PF-1), later reclassified PF-411. She was decommissioned on 22 June 2000 at Sattahip Naval Base.

Dismantled and transported by truck to the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, Tachin was re-assembled and has been on display there since 9 July 2001 with all her original armament intact.

The U.S. Navy awarded Glendale five battle stars for her World War II service and four battle stars for her Korean War service. She also received the Korean Presidential Unit Citation for her actions during the Korean War.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found .

Thetford Bridge railway station

Thetford Bridge railway station served the eastern part of Thetford, Norfolk, England between 1875 and 1953.

The railway line between Bury St Edmunds and Thetford was proposed by the Bury St Edmunds and Thetford Railway (B&TR) and authorised on 5 July 1865; but the company had problems in raising the necessary money. After assistance was given by the Thetford and Watton Railway (T&WR), the plan was modified, and instead of running to the main station at Thetford, a curve was built so that T&WR trains from Swaffham could run directly to the Bury St Edmunds line without reversing at Thetford. This curve was opened first, on 15 November 1875, along with Thetford Bridge station. The B&TR line between Bury St Edmunds and Thetford Bridge was opened on 1 March 1876. The B&TR was purchased by the Great Eastern Railway (GER) in 1878.

Trains on the B&TR were operated by the T&WR until 1879, when operation was taken over by the GER; after this, trains from Bury began to run to Thetford; the east to south curve at Thetford Bridge was not used after 1880. Thetford Bridge was then the last station before Thetford.

In September 1911 the station was used as a railhead by the British Army who were running a series of war games.

In January 1923 the station was taken over by the London & North Eastern Railway.

Following nationalization in 1948 Thetford Bridge was operated by British Railways (Eastern Region).

The station closed on 8 June 1953.

Burg Štamberk


Die Ruine der Burg Štamberk (auch Burg Sternberg, tschechisch Hrad Štamberk; auch Hrad Šternberk) befindet sich auf dem Gemeindegebiet von Řásná im Okres Jihlava in der Region Vysočina in Tschechien. Die Höhenburg liegt auf 695 m Höhe oberhalb von Řásná, sieben Kilometer nördlich von Telč.

Die Burg Štamberk/Sternberg wurde in den 1280er Jahren auf königlichem Grund vom Vöttauer Burggrafen und Höchsten Mundschenk des Königreichs Böhmen, Jaroslaw von Sternberg (Jaroslav ze Šternberka), als Wachtburg an der Landesgrenze errichtet. 1339 tauschte der damalige Markgraf Karl IV. die Burg Štamberk zusammen mit der Herrschaft Teltsch gegen die abgelegene Herrschaft Bánov mit Ulrich III. von Neuhaus. 1356 war die Burg Štamberk im Besitz des Adeligen Stephan von Břesnitz (Štěpán z Březnice), der sie in diesem Jahr dem Heinrich II. von Neuhaus verkaufte. Dessen Nichte Elisabeth/Eliška († 1417) erhielt 1399 Burg und Herrschaft Štamberk als Heiratsgut. Nach dem Tod ihres ersten Mannes Johann von Krawarn (Jan z Kravař) fielen die Besitzungen 1404 an den witigonischen Familienzweig von Neuhaus zurück. Nachfolgend wurden Burg und Herrschaft Štamberk, die aus über zwanzig Dörfern und Städtchen sowie einem Teil von Slawonitz bestand, der Herrschaft Telč inkorporiert.

Während der Hussitenkriege wurde die Burg 1423 zerstört und nicht wieder aufgebaut.

Championnat de Syrie de football 2000-2001


La saison 2000-2001 du Championnat de Syrie de football est la trentième édition du championnat de première division en Syrie. Les quatorze meilleurs clubs du pays sont regroupés au sein d’une poule unique où ils s’affrontent deux fois au cours de la saison, à domicile et à l’extérieur. En fin de saison, les quatre premiers disputent la phase finale pour le titre tandis que les quatre derniers sont relégués et remplacés par les deux meilleurs clubs de deuxième division.

C’est le club d’Al Jaish Damas qui remporte le championnat cette saison, après avoir terminé en tête du classement final avec neuf points d’avance sur Al-Karamah SC et onze sur Al Ittihad Alep. C’est le huitième titre de champion de Syrie de l’histoire du club, qui manque le doublé en s’inclinant en finale de la Coupe de Syrie face à Hutteen SC.

La fin de saison a été particulièrement mouvementée. Tout d’abord, pour une raison indéterminée, la fédération syrienne décide d’annuler la phase finale pour le titre, qui devait regrouper les quatre premiers du classement à la fin de la saison régulière. Al Jaish Damas, en tête au classement général, est déclaré champion. Ensuite, plusieurs clubs sont reconnus coupables d’avoir arrangés des rencontres du championnat et sont rétrogradées en première instance en deuxième division. Cette décision sera par la suite annulée par la fédération.

Le barème utilisé pour établir le classement est le suivant :